The objective of the activity is to develop and test noise shaping techniques capable of improving the signal to noise ratio up to 20 dB for payloads with on-board processors and active phased array antennas. A test-bed representing critical elements of a payloadimplementing noise shaping will be developed and performances evaluated, including the development of noise shaping algorithms and their digital implementation. Targeted Improvements: Improvement of the signal to noise ratio in the order of 10 to 20dB of active phased array antenna. Description: Today, there is a trend to embark more and more digital signal processing techniques on telecommunication payloads (digital beamforming, filtering, signal routeing, noise reduction, etc.) to provide in-orbit flexibility, exploiting enabling technologies as they become available. System performance requirements today translate into very high component performance requirements and high-power consumption. This activity will explore a different approach. Noise-shaping techniques will be applied and a scalable active antenna concept will be developed and evaluated based on highly dense element lattices with spatial-oversampling. This allows separation of the noise of the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and non-linearities of the Analogue to Digital Converter(ADC) from the desired signal (beam) of interest. Several improvements will be implemented and evaluated:a) reduced power consumption and increased DC-to-RF efficiency by increasing the ADC effective number of bits and using lower resolution components and b) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio by shaping the noise/distortion out of the frequency band of interest where the desired signal (beam) resides.A scalable breadboard of a Ka-band test-bed will be designed, manufactured and tested. It shall consist of RF chains, including the radiation element feed, LNAs and a digital processor. The processor shall be able to digitise and perform sigma-delta modulations. Lattices with different density levels will be evaluated to correlate SNR level with the radiation element density.

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